The German Debate on Native Tree Production and Use
Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh
Vilmorin is credited with the first testing of known-provenance pine tree seed sources around 1740: he needed a good source of timber for ships' masts. During the Industrial Revolution after the beginning of the 19th century wood was required in very large quantities, for example, to support shafts in the coal mining industry. Traditional felling of individual trees in forests was replaced with clear felling. As a result, forest tree nurseries were set up to supply saplings for reforestation.
In the middle of the 19th century the importance of seed source began to dawn on foresters. It took many years to ascertain that, for example, the so-called "Appel Pine" (named from the nursery of Conrad Appel, Darmstadt), which was grown from seed of southern French origin, was not suitable for Central Europe. In the late 19th and early 20th century Alnus glutinosa seed was collected in Belgium (Malines) from trees that were regularly pollarded for firewood — it was therefore easy
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