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Proceedings of the International Plant Propagator's Society

Vol. 42

Artificial Seeds in Micropropagation

Jens Viktor Nørgaard

pp: 182-186


In the broadest possible sense, artificial seeds are a way of transferring somatic embryos or shoots from sterile tissue culture to nonsterile conditions, with or without an artificial seed endosperm. In a strict sense it is a somatic embryo with an artificial endosperm or seed coat. Thus, artificial seeds have no direct relation to the propagation method.

Redenbaugh et al. (1991) define the following four types of artificial seed:

  • Uncoated, desiccated synthetic seeds
  • Coated, desiccated synthetic seeds
  • Coated, hydrated synthetic seeds
  • Uncoated, hydrated synthetic seeds

The major research effort has been conducted with coated, hydrated synthetic seeds.

Encapsulation has several advantages over traditional acclimatization and soil establishment of somatic embryos.

  1. Micropropagated plants can be delivered directly to the nursery/greenhouse without acclimatization. Acclimatization and several handling steps are saved.
  2. The artificial endosperm and

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