Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 82 (1) 38-53 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2017/82.1.5|
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2017 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article
Macropropagation of banana/plantain using selected local materials: a cost-effective way of mass propagation of planting materials for resource-poor households
J. Ntamwira1,2, C. Sivirihauma3, W. Ocimati4, M. Bumba1, L. Vutseme3, M. Kamira1 and G. Blomme5
1Bioversity International, Bukavu, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo
2Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomiques (INERA), Mulungu Research Station, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
3Bioversity International, Butembo, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo
4Bioversity International, Naguru, Kampala, Uganda
5Bioversity International, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
This study assessed simple macro-propagation methods, which build on methods reported for enset multiplication, for producing banana seedlings in four different Musa cultivar use groups across four unique agro-ecologies (900–1,815 m a.s.l.). The methods consisted of a substrate of loosened soil or a soil-and decomposed farmyard manure mixture under either a semi-cylindrical tunnel made of wooden/stick frames covered with knitted elephant grass stems or a 5 cm thick mulch cover of spear grass/elephant grass. A standard macro-propagation unit, made of wooden planks and thick plastic polythene sheet covering, with sawdust as substrate, served as a control. The average number of harvested plantlets per corm, irrespective of cultivar and site, varied between 7.5 under semi-cylindrical tunnel without manure and 12.6 under the standard macro-propagation unit. In general, and across sites and cultivars, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) between macro-propagation methods in the mean number of harvested plantlets. Irrespective of method and cultivar, fewer plantlets were harvested at the high altitude sites. Significantly more plantain plantlets (12.1–14.5) were produced at low altitudes (900 and 1,066 m) while dessert (12.8) and cooking (12.7) types performed better at 1,700 m. Significantly fewer plantlets per corm were produced by the ABB types (7.9), while the highest numbers were realized for the plantains (12.2). The net profit from sale of plantlets from the simple macro-propagation units was comparable and sometimes higher than that from the standard unit. The high initial cost and skills needed for establishing the standard macro-propagation unit have often hindered its adoption. The low cost, use of local materials and comparable returns from the simple macro-propagation units suggest that they could be a good alternative for banana seedling production under small-scale farmer conditions.
altitude, corm, cultivar, macro-propagation, Musa, net profit, scarification, temperature
Significance of this study
What is already known on this subject?
What are the new findings?
Standard banana/plantain macro-propagation units made of wood plunks, thick polythene sheets and saw dust/rice hull substrate have been poorly adopted due to the high cost of establishment.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
Performance of novel, simple and less costly macro-propagation units made of soil or soil-manure mixture as substrate and mulch cover is comparable to standard.
The novel units will improve adoption of macro-propagation and improve access to clean seed by resource-poor farmers.
Bakelana, K. (2004). Multiplication rapide et distribution de matériel de plantation de variétés améliorées et productives de bananier chez les planteurs de la province du bas Congo. In Rapport de la Sixième Réunion du Comité du Pilotage, Réseau de recherches sur Musa en Afrique centrale et de l’ouest (MUSACO), E. Akyeampong, and T.J. Tetang, eds. (Conakry, Guinée; Douala, Cameroun: INIBAP), p. 33–37.
Blomme, G., Jacobsen, K., Ocimati, W., Beed, F., Ntamwira, J., Sivirihauma, C., Ssekiwoko, F., Nakato, V., Kubiriba, J., Tripathi, L., Tinzaara, W., Mbolela, F., Lutete, L., and Karamura, E. (2014). Fine-tuning banana Xanthomonas wilt control options over the past decade in East and Central Africa. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 139, 265–281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-014-0402-0.
Bouwmeester, H., Van Asten, P., and Ouma, E. (2009). Mapping key variables of banana based cropping systems in the Great Lake Region, partial outcomes of the base-line and diagnostic surveys, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 50 pp.
Bareja, B.G. (2011). Climatic factors can promote or inhibit plant growth and development. http://www.cropsreview.com/climatic-factors.html (accessed April 26, 2016).
Brandt, S.A., Spring, A., Hiebsch, C., McCabe, J.T., Terrence, M.C.J., Tabogie, E., Diro, M., Wolde-Michael, G., Yntiso, G., Yantiso, G., Shigeta, M., and Tesfaye, S. (1997). The “Tree against Hunger”: Enset-based agricultural systems in Ethiopia (Washington, DC, USA: American Association for the Advancement of Science), 56 pp.
Dougherty, M. (2002). Gendered scripts and declining soil fertility in southern Ethiopia. African Studies Quarterly 6(1–2), 111–156.
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., and Ryan, P.D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1), 9 pp.
Hauser, S. (2007). Plantain (Musa spp. AAB) bunch yield and root health response to combinations of mechanical, thermal and chemical nematode control measures on suckers. Afr. Plant Prot. 13, 1–15.
Heslop-Harrison, J.S., and Trude, S. (2007). Domestication, genomics and the future for banana. Ann. Bot. 100, 1073–1084. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcm191.
Kamira, M., Ntamwira, J., Sivirihauma, C., Ocimati, W., Van Asten, P., Vutseme, L., and Blomme, G. (2016). Agronomic performance of local and introduced plantains, dessert, cooking and beer bananas (Musa spp.) across different altitude and soil conditions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Afr. J. Agr. Res. 11, 4313–4332. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11424.
Karamura, E., Frison, E., Karamura, D.A., and Sharrock, S. (1998). Banana production systems in eastern and southern Africa. In Bananas and Food Security, International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain, C. Picq, E. Fouré, and E.A. Frison, eds. (Montpellier, France), p. 401–412.
Kasyoka, M.R., Mwangi, M., Kori, N., Gitonga, N., and Muasya, R. (2010). Evaluating the macropropagation efficiency of banana varieties preferred by farmers in eastern and central Kenya. Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting, Entebbe, Uganda, p. 449–503.
Kirkby, R.A., and Ngendahayo, D. (1985). Production et recherche sur la banane en Afrique de l’est et en Afrique centrale. In Actes du Colloque Régional, 14–17 December 1983, Bujumbura, Burundi (Ottawa, Canada: Le Centre), 154 pp.
Kwa, M. (2003). Activation de bourgeons latentes et utilizations de fragments de tige du bananier pour la propagation en masse de plants en conditions horticoles in vivo. Fruits 58, 315–328. https://doi.org/10.1051/fruits:2003018.
Lepoint, P., Iradukunda, F., and Blomme, G. (2013). Macropropagation of Musa spp. in Burundi: a preliminary study. In Banana Systems in the Humid Highlands of Sub-Saharan Africa: Enhancing Resilience and Productivity, G. Blomme, P. van Asten, and B. Vanlauwe, eds. (Wallingford, UK: CAB International), p. 58–65. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781780642314.0058.
Manzur, M.D. (2001). In situ mass propagation of the FHIA-20 banana hybrid using benzylaminopurine. Infomusa 10(1), 3–4.
Njeri, N., Mwangi, M., Gathu, R., Mbaka, J., Kori, N., and Muasya, R. (2010). Assessing effectiveness of macropropagation technology to produce healthy seedlings of banana varieties with high market demand in eastern and central provinces, Kenya. Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting 20–24 September 2010, Entebbe, Uganda. Research Application Summary, p. 531–533.
Njeri, N., Maina, M., Ruth, G., Jesca, M., and Reuben, M. (2011). Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) reduces availability of corms for seedling production through macropropagation technology. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 12(1), 1537–1542.
Njukwe, E., Tenkouano, A., Amah, D., Sadik, K., Muchunguzi, P., Nyine, M., and Dubois, T. (2009). Training manual on macro-propagation of banana and plantain. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. 23 pp.
Ocimati, W., Karamura, D., Rutikanga, A., Sivirihauma, C., Ndungo, V., Ntamwira, J., Kamira, M., Kanyaruguru, J.P., and Blomme, G. (2013). Agronomic practices used by farmers in the management of Musa across different agro-ecological zones in Burundi, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. In Banana Systems in the Humid Highlands of Sub-Saharan Africa: Enhancing Resilience and Productivity, G. Blomme, P. van Asten, and B. Vanlauwe, eds. (Wallingford, UK: CAB International), p. 175–190. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781780642314.0175.
Ortiz, R., and Vuylsteke, D.R. (1994). Genetics of apical dominance in plantain (Musa spp., AAB group) and improvement of suckering behavior J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119, 1050–1053.
Swennen, R., and Vuylsteke, D. (1991). Bananas in Africa: Diversity, uses and prospects for improvement. In Crop Genetic Resources of Africa, Vol. 2, N.Q. Ng, P. Perrino, F. Attere, and H. Zedan, eds. (United Kingdom: Trinity Press), p. 151–160.
VSN International Ltd. (2009). GenStat 12th Edition. www.vsni.co.uk.
Received: 1 July 2016 | Accepted: 12 January 2017 | Published: 23 February 2017 | Available online: 23 February 2017