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  Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 81 (5) 248-254 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2016/81.5.3
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2016 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article

The anthocyanins component and the influence factors of contents in red flesh apple 'Hong-Xun No.1'

Yugang Zhang1,2, Ruixue Zhao3, Wenlian Liu1, Xiaohong Sun1,2, Suhua Bai1,2, Ya Xiang1 and Hongyi Dai1,2
1College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China
2Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticultural Plants, Qingdao, China
3Shandong Provincial Extension Station of Fruits and Tea, Jinan, China

Red flesh apple is rich in anthocyanins, known as functional fruit. 'Hong-Xun No.1' apple is a new red flesh apple cultivar, which was taken as material to detect the anthocyanins component of red flesh using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLCQ-TOF-MS/MS), and to determine the anthocyanins contents of different organs, developmental stages, harvested locations and tissue culture plantlets under different conditions of culture temperatures, and with different sugars in the media. Six components of anthocyanins and six components other flavonoids in red-flesh apple fruits were detected. The anthocyanins contents were different under different conditions as follows: 1) The order of anthocyanin contents from high to low in different organs/tissues was fruit peel>fruit flesh>new leaves>flowers>mature leaves in Fresh Weight (FW). The anthocyanin contents reached the highest in the fruit peel and fruit flesh at 12 weeks after abloom; 2) The anthocyanin contents in fruit peel and fruit flesh of the apple fruit harvested in Xinjiang were much higher than those in the apple fruit harvested in Shandong province; 3) With the increase in culture temperature, the anthocyanin contents in the leaves and stems of the tissue culture plantlets displayed a significantly decreasing trend; 4) Different sugars in the culture medium also had significant effects on anthocyanin contents and the order from high to low was sorbitol>fructose> galactose>glucose>sucrose>lactose>maltose after 14 days treatment at 15°C. The anthocyanin content of tissue culture plantlets cultured with sorbitol MS after 14 days at 15°C was up to 359.86 U g-1 FW, which was 7.8 times higher than that of sucrose MS in room temperature, and was 1.8 and 3.6 times higher than those of peel and flesh of 5-year old tree, respectively. These results have provided us with the basic data to effectively utilize and industrially produce anthocyanin in the red flesh apple cultivar.

Keywords red flesh apple, anthocyanins component, sugar, sorbitol, flavonoid

Significance of this study

What is already known on this subject?

  • Anthocyanin is an important type of isoflavonoids, which has the anti-oxidant functions and also has the roles of delaying ageing. Red flesh apple is rich in anthocyanins, known as functional fruit. Temperature can influence the contents of red flesh apple.
What are the new findings?
  • The anthocyanin content of tissue culture plantlets cultured with sorbitol MS after 14 days at 15°C was up to 359.86 U g-1 FW, which was 7.8 times higher than that of sucrose MS in room temperature, and was 1.8 and 3.6 times higher than those of peel and flesh of 5-year old tree, respectively.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
  • The results described in this study have provided us with the basic data and new way to industrially produce anthocyanins through tissue culture method and effectively utilize in the red flesh apple cultivar, 'Hong-Xun No.1'.

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Received: 7 June 2016 | Accepted: 13 September 2016 | Published: 30 October 2016 | Available online: 26 October 2016

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