Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 81 (4) 227-233 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2016/81.4.6|
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2016 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article
Influence of endophytic diazotroph and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and turf quality of 'TifEagle' bermudagrass
T.Z. Liu, J.M. Zhang, Z.W. Mao and R.J. Li
College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China; Guangdong Engineering Research Center of Grassland Science
Endophytic diazotrophic bacteria have been found within many graminaceous plants in the last decades and may contribute to nitrogen (N) nutrition through biological nitrogen fixation while promoting growth and stress tolerance to host plants. Their colonization and growth promotion were reported to be affected by plant N nutrition level. However, little is known on effects of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria and their interaction with N fertilization on turfgrass. A study was conducted to evaluate the growth and turf quality of ‘TifEagle’ bermudagrass in response to inoculation with endophytic diazotroph bacteria at different rates of N fertilization. Diazotrophic strains 7D and BM13 were previously isolated from native common bermudagrass. Bacterial colonization was applied by soaking ‘TifEagle’ bermudagrass plants for 24 h with liquids of the two diazotrophic strains respectively. Four rates of N fertilizer with urea at 0, 2, 4 and 8 g m-2 were applied to the inoculated and non-inoculated ‘TifEagle’ bermudagrass once a month after planting. Results showed that the growth rate, clipping yield, turf quality and shoot dry biomass increased with increased N fertilizer rates. Inoculation with diazotrophic strains in the absence of N fertilization resulted in growth promotion, however at 8 g m-2 of N fertilization, there was a significant decrease for root dry biomass compared to the non-inoculated plants. These results suggest that high N fertilization might inhibit the biological N fixation by endophytes in root systems. These findings could be helpful in the use of endophytic bacteria to supply bermudagrass and other turfgrass with biologically fixed N.
diazotroph, fertilization rates, biological nitrogen fixation, 'TifEagle' bermudagrass, quality
Significance of this study
What is already known on this subject?
What are the new findings?
Turfgrass needs frequent application of nitrogen to meet growth requirements and compensate for nitrogen loss through frequent clippings removal. However, excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers has been associated with environmental pollution. It has been suggested that endophytic diazotrophic bacteria may be an efficient means for supplying graminaceous plants with biological nitrogen fixation.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
The study showed that inoculation with diazotrophic strains in the absence of nitrogen fertilization resulted in growth promotion of bermudagrass. The application of higher amounts of nitrogen fertilizer undermined the effect of inoculation.
The diazotrophic strains may be potentially effective turfgrass growth promoting bacteria agents. They have a potential to be utilized as a biofertilizer for a wide variety of plants in various climatic and edaphic conditions.
Alumai, A., Salminen, S.O., Richmond, D.S., Cardina, J., and Grewal, P. (2008). Comparative evaluation of aesthetic, biological, and economic effectiveness of different lawn management programs. Urban Ecosyst. 12, 127–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-008-0073-8.
An, Q., Dong, Y., Wang, W., Li, Y., and Li, J. (2007). Constitutive expression of the nifA gene activates associative nitrogen fixation of Enterobacter gergoviae 57-7, an opportunistic endophytic diazotroph. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103, 613–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03289.x.
Baldani, J.I., Reis, V.M., Baldani, V.L., and Döbereiner, J. (2002). A brief story of nitrogen fixation in sugarcane – reasons for success in Brazil. Funct. Plant Biol. 29, 417–423. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP01083.
Barton, L., and Colmer, T.D. (2006). Irrigation and fertiliser strategies for minimising nitrogen leaching from turfgrass. Agr. Water Mgt. 80, 160–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.07.011.
Bashan, Y., and Holguin, G. (1997). Azospirillum-plant relationships: Environmental and physiological advances (1990–1996). Can. J. Microbiol. 43, 103–121. https://doi.org/10.1139/m97-015.
Bashan, Y., Levanony, H., and Mitiku, G. (1989). Changes in proton efflux of intact wheat roots induced by Azospirillum brasilense. Cd. Can. J. Microbiol. 35, 691–697. https://doi.org/10.1139/m89-113.
Boddey, R.M., and Döbereiner, J. (1995). Nitrogen fixation associated with grasses and cereals; recent progress and perspectives for the future. Fertilizer Research 42, 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00750518.
Boddey, R.M., Oliveira, O.C., Urquiaga, S., Reis, V.M., Olivares, F.L., Baldani, V.L., and Döbereiner, J. (1995). Biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane and rice: contributions and prospects for improvement. Plant Soil 174, 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0003224.
Boddey, R.M., Urquiaga, S., Alves, B.R., and Reis, V. (2003). Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: present knowledge and future applications. Plant Soil 252, 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024152126541.
Bohlool, B.B., Ladha, J.K., Garrity, D.P., and George, T. (1992). Biological nitrogen-fixation for sustainable agriculture – a perspective. Plant Soil 141, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00011307.
Carvalho, T.L., Balsemao, E., Saraiva, R.M., Ferreira, P.C., and Hemerly, A.S. (2014). Nitrogen signalling in plant interactions with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. J. Exp. Bot. 65, 5631–5642. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru319.
Chi, F., Shen, S.H., Cheng, H.P., Jing, Y.X., Yanni, Y.G., and Dazzo, F.B. (2005). Ascending migration of endophytic rhizobia, from roots to leaves, inside rice plants and assessment of benefits to rice growth physiology. Appl. Environ. Microb. 71, 7271–7278. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.11.7271-7278.2005.
Dobbelaere, S., Croonenborghs, A., Thys, A., Broek, A.V., and Vanderleyden, J. (1999). Phytostimulatory effect of Azospirillum brasilense wild type and mutant strains altered in IAA production on wheat. Plant Soil 212, 155–164. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004658000815.
Dobbelaere, S., Croonenborghs, A., Thys, A., Ptacek, D., Vanderleyden, J., Dutto, P., Labandera-Gonzalez, C., Caballero-Mellado, J., Aguirre, J.F., Kapulnik, Y., Brener, S., Burdman, S., Kadouri, D., Sarig, S., and Okon, Y. (2001). Response of agronomically important crops to inoculation with Azospirillum. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28, 871–879.
Döbereiner, J., and Urquiaga, S. (1992). Soil biology and sustainable agriculture. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 84, 127–133.
do Carmo Lana, M., Dartora, J., Marini, D., and Hann, J.E. (2012). Inoculation with Azospirillum, associated with nitrogen fertilization in maize. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 59, 399–405.
dos Reis Jr., F.B., Reis, V.M., Urquiaga, S., and Dobereiner, J. (2000). Influence of nitrogen fertilization on the population of diazotropic bacteria Herbaspirillum
spp. and Acetobacter diazotrophicus in sugar cane (Saccharum spp.). Plant Soil 219, 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004732500983.
Govindarajan, M., Kwon, S., and Weon, H. (2007). Isolation, molecular characterization and growth-promoting activities of endophytic sugarcane diazotroph Klebsiella sp. GR9. World J. Microb. Biot. 23, 997–1006. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-006-9326-y.
Gu, C., Crane, J., Hornberger, G., and Carrico, A. (2015). The effects of household management practices on the global warming potential of urban lawns. Journal of Environ. Mgt. 151, 233–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.01.008.
Gyorgy, A., Kulin, B., Toth, L., Zsigo, G., and Szeman, L. (2008). Effect of improving soil fertility levels on turfgrass quality. Cereal Res. Commun. 36(Suppl. 5), 163–166.
Han, J.G., Sun, L., Dong, X., Cai, Z.Q., Sun, X.L., Yang, H.L., Wang, Y.S., and Song, W. (2005). Characterization of a novel plant growth-promoting bacteria strain Delftia tsuruhatensis HR4 both as a diazotroph and a potential biocontrol agent against various plant pathogens. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 28, 66–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2004.09.003.
Hoefsloot, G., Termorshuizen, A.J., Watt, D.A., and Cramer, M.D. (2005). Biological nitrogen fixation is not a major contributor to the nitrogen demand of a commercially grown South African Sugarcane Cultivar. Plant Soil 277, 85–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-2581-0.
Horgan, B.P., Branham, B.E., and Mulvaney, R.L. (2002). Mass balance of N-15 applied to Kentucky bluegrass including direct measurement of denitrification. Crop Sci. 42(5), 1595–1601. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2002.1595v.
Hungria, M., Campo, R.J., Souza, E.M., and Pedrosa, F.O. (2010). Inoculation with selected strains of Azospirillum brasilense and A. lipoferum improves yields of maize and wheat in Brazil. Plant Soil 331, 413–425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0262-0.
Kennedy, I., Pereg, L.L., Wood, C., Deaker, R., Gilchrist, K., and Katupitiya, S. (1997). Biological nitrogen fixation in non-leguminous field crops: Facilitating the evolution of an effective association between Azospirillum and wheat. Plant Soil 194, 65–79. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004260222528.
Kloepper, J.W., Schippers, B., and Bakker, P.A. (1992). Proposed elimination of the term endorhizosphere. Phytopathology 82, 726–727.
Knowles, R., and Denike, D. (1974). Effect of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 6(6), 353–358.
Koeritz, E.J., and Stier, J.C. (2009). Nitrogen rate and mowing height effects on velvet and creeping bentgrasses for low-input putting greens. Crop Sci. 49, 1463–1472. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.09.0575.
Liu, T.Z., Mao, Z.W., Li, F.J., and Zhang, J.M. (2014). Isolation and identification of endophytic diazotroph from Cyndon dactylon. Pratacultural Sci. 31, 1254–1260.
Milesi, C., Running, S.W., Elvidge, C.D., Dietz, J.B., Tuttle, B.T., and Nemani, R.R. (2005). Mapping and modeling the biogeochemical cycling of turf grasses in the United States. Environ. Mgt. 36, 426–438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-004-0316-2.
Okon, Y., and Labandera, C.A. (1994). Agronomic applications of Azospirillum: An evaluation of 20 years world-wide field inoculation. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26, 1591–1601. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(94)90311-5.
Okon, Y., and Vanderleyden, J. (1997). Root-associated Azospirillum species can stimulate plants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 366–370.
Oliveira, A.L.M., Stoffels, M., Schmid, M., Reis, V.M., Baldani, J.I., and Hartmann, A. (2009). Colonization of sugarcane plantlets by mixed inoculations with diazotrophic bacteria. Eur. J. Soil Boil. 45, 106–113.
Petrovic, A.M. (1990). The fate of nitrogenous fertilizers applied to turfgrass. J. Environ. Qual. 19, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1990.00472425001900010001x.
Reed, S.C., Cleveland, C.C., and Townsend, A.R. (2011). Functional ecology of free-living nitrogen fixation: a contemporary perspective. Ann. Rev. Eco. Evol. Syst. 42, 489–512. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-102710-145034.
Robbins, P., Polderman, A., and Birkenholtz, T. (2001). Lawns and toxins: an ecology of the city. Cities: Intl. J. Urban Policy and Planning 18, 369–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751(01)00029-4.
Sarathambal, C., Ilamurugub, K., Balachandar, D., Chinnadurai, C., and Gharde, Y. (2015). Characterization and crop production efficiency of diazotrophic isolates from the rhizosphere of semi-arid tropical grasses of India. Appl. Soil Ecol. 87, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2014.11.004.
Yoch, D.C., and Whiting, G.J. (1986). Evidence for NH4+ switch-off regulation of nitrogenase activity by bacteria in salt marsh sediments and roots of the grass Spartina alterniflora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51, 143–149.v
Received: 19 April 2016 | Accepted: 1 July 2016 | Published: 29 August 2016 | Available online: 29 August 2016