ISHS
  eJHS
     
EJHS
Home


Submit
an article


Subscriptions

ISHS Home

ISHS Contact

Search

eJHS
  Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 81 (1) 27-36 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2016/81.1.4
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2016 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article

Performance of various cool-season turfgrasses as influenced by simulated traffic in northeastern Italy

C. Pornaro1, E. Barolo2, F. Rimi1,3, S. Macolino1 and M. Richardson4
1Department of Agronomy Food Natural Resources Animals and Environment, University of Padova, Italy
2Agricultural Research Council (CRA SCS), Verona, Italy
3Sakata Seed America, Inc., Morgan Hill, CA, USA
4Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA

SUMMARY
Warm-season grasses are known to be more wear tolerant than cool-season grasses, but in northern Italy the latter are generally preferred for ornamental turfgrasses and athletics fields. The Po River valley, in the North of Italy, is a typical transition zone where species and cultivar selection play a very important role in establishing successful turfgrasses with high stress tolerance, including foot traffic. The aim of this research was to evaluate the traffic tolerance and adaptation of 25 cultivars of three cool-season turfgrass species to transitional growing conditions of Italy. A study was conducted over a two-year period at the experimental farm of Padova University in Legnaro. The species studied were tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Simulated traffic was applied using a Brinkman traffic simulator at a level equivalent to one soccer game per week. Turfgrass quality and density were assessed every week using a 1 to 9 visual scale during traffic treatments each year. Furthermore, turfgrass canopy height was measured weekly for calculating daily vertical growth rate (mm d-1) in spring, summer, and autumn. Trafficked plots exhibited lower quality than non-trafficked, primarily as a result of decline in turf density. The effect of traffic on density was more evident in the second year wherein all species exhibited ratings lower than 5.0. Traffic did not affect turf growth for perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, while a drastic decrease in growth rate in the second year of study was observed for kentucky bluegrass. Perennial ryegrass had lower density than tall fescue and kentucky bluegrass, especially in summer and autumn of the first year when it showed ratings lower than 6.0. Different responses occurred among kentucky bluegrass cultivars, while perennial ryegrass and tall fescue cultivars responded similarly. Results indicated a high quality and environmental adaptability of ‘Rhambler SRP’ tall fescue. Among kentucky bluegrass cultivars, ‘Mystere’ displayed the best wear tolerance with a decrease of density from 5.5 to 4.3 only during the second year. Perennial ryegrass cultivars were similarly affected by traffic, except for ‘Yorktown III’ which showed the lower performance in both traffic and non-traffic conditions reaching a turf density rating lower than 5.0 in both years of study.

Keywords cultivar, wear tolerance, transition zone, turf density, turf quality, turf vertical growth

Significance of this study

What is already known on this subject?

  • Perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and kentucky bluegrass are the most used species for establishing sports fields in the European transition zones. However, the wear tolerance of kentucky bluegrass when compared with perennial ryegrass and tall fescue is reported by different authors with contrasting results. Some studies reported that perennial ryegrass has better wear tolerance than kentucky bluegrass, while others demonstrated that it has similar or lower compaction tolerance.
What are the new findings?
  • Results demonstrated that kentucky bluegrass cultivars responded differently to traffic conditions with ‘Mystery’ displaying the best wear tolerance. In general, perennial ryegrass cultivars performed poorly during warmer months with ‘Yorktown III’ being the worst performing. Among tall fescue cultivars, ‘Rhambler SRP’ showed a high quality and environmental adaptability.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
  • The use of wear tolerant cultivars is the best way to reduce the maintenance costs of sports turf areas. Findings from this study will help turfgrass managers in selecting cultivars and improving playability of sport surfaces in northern Italy.

Download fulltext version How to cite this article       Export citation to RIS format      

E-mail: stefano.macolino@unipd.it  

References

  • Abraham, E.M., Huang, B., Bonos, S.A., and Meyer, W.A. (2004). Evaluation of drought resistance for texas bluegrass, kentucky bluegrass, and their hybrids. Crop Sci. 44, 1746–1753. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2004.1746.

  • Beard, J.B. (1973). Turfgrass: Science and culture. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall).

  • Bertrand, A., Castonguay, Y., Azaiez, A., and Dionne, J. (2013). Low-temperature stress. In Turfgrass: Biology, Use and Management, J.C. Stier, B.P. Horgan and S.A. Bonos, eds. (Madison, WI, USA: ASA, SSSA and CSSA), pp. 279–303. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronmonogr56.c8.

  • Bourgoin, B., and Mansat, P. (1979). Persistence of turfgrass species and cultivars. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 55, 121–140.

  • Brede, D. (2000). Turfgrass maintenance reduction handbook: Sports, lawns, and golf (Chelsea, MI: Sleeping Bear Press).

  • Bremer, D.J., Su, K., Keeley, S.J., and Fry, J.D. (2006). Performance in the transition zone of two hybrid bluegrasses compared with kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue. Appl. Turfgrass Sci. 3(1).

  • Brosnan, J.T., Ebdon, J.S., and Dest, W.M. (2005). Characteristics in diverse wear tolerant genotypes of Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Sci. 45, 1917–1926. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2004.0511.

  • Canaway, P.M. (1978). Trials of turfgrass wear tolerance and associated factors – A summary of progress 1975–1977. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 54, 7–14.

  • Canaway, P.M. (1981). Wear tolerance of turfgrass species. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 57, 65–83.

  • Carrow, R.N. (1980). Influence of soil compaction on three turfgrass species. Agron. J. 72, 1038–1042. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1980.00021962007200060041x.

  • Carrow, R.N., and Petrovic, A.M. (1992). Effects of traffic on turfgrass. In Turfgrass Agronomy Monograph 32, D.V. Waddington, R.N. Carrow and R.C. Shearman, eds. (Madison, WI: ASA, CSSA, and SSSA), pp. 285–330.

  • Cereti, C.F. (2002). Tappeti erbosi e inerbimenti. In Coltivazioni erbacee foraggere e tappeti erbosi, R. Baldoni and L. Giardini, eds. (Bologna, Italy: Patron Publishers), pp. 335–396.

  • Cereti, C.F., Rossini, F., and Nassetti, F. (2005). Wear tolerance characterisation of 110 turfgrass varieties. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 10, 538–542.

  • Cockerham, S.T., Gibeault, V.A., Van Dam, J., and Leonard, M.K. (1990). Tolerance of several cool- season turfgrasses to simulated sports traffic. In Natural and artificial playing fields: Characteristics and safety features. Schmidt, American Society for Testing and Materials. STP 1073, 85–95.

  • Den Haan, J.W., Huang, B., Murphy, J.A., Bonos, S.A., DaCosta, M., and Meyer, W.A. (2009). Morphological and anatomical variations among perennial ryegrass cultivars exposed to wear stress. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 11, 779–787.

  • Dernoeden, P.H., Carroll, M.J., and Krouse, J.M. (1993). Weed management and tall fescue quality as influenced by mowing, nitrogen, and herbicides. Crop Sci. 33(5), 1055–1061. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1993.0011183X003300050036x.

  • Dest, W.M., Ebdon, J.S., and Guillard, K. (2009). Differentiating between the influence of wear and soil compaction and their interaction of turfgrass stress. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 11, 1067–1083.

  • Evans, G.E. (1988). Tolerance of selected bluegrass and fescue taxa to simulated human foot traffic. J. Environ. Hort. 6(1), 10–14.

  • Feldman, L.J. (1984). Regulation of root development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 223–242. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.35.060184.001255.

  • Fiorio, S., Macolino, S., and Leinauer, B. (2012). Establishment and performance of bluegrass species and tall fescue under reduced-input maintenance in a temperate Mediterranean environment. HortTechnol. 22(6), 810–816.

  • Fry, J., Bremer, D., and Keeley, S. (2009). Establishment rates and lateral spread of Festuca arundinacea cultivars. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 11, 481–487.

  • Fushtey, S.G., Taylor, D.K., and Fairey D. (1983). The effect of wear stress on survival of turfgrass in pure stands and in mixtures. Canadian J. Plant Sci. 63(1), 317–322. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps83-033.

  • Hoffman, L., Ebdon, J.S., Dest, W.M., and Da Costa, M. (2010). Effects of nitrogen and potassium on wear mechanisms in perennial ryegrass: I. wear tolerance and recovery. Crop Sci. 50(1), 357–366. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.08.0473.

  • Ju, H.J., Hill, N.S., Abbott, T., and Ingram, K.T. (2006). Temperature influences on endophyte growth in tall fescue. Crop Sci. 46(1), 404–412. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2005.0282.

  • Macolino, S., Pignata, G., Giolo, M., and Richardson, M.D. (2014). Species succession and turf quality of tall fescue and kentucky bluegrass mixtures as affected by mowing height. Crop Sci. 54(3), 1220–1226. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2013.10.0669.

  • Macolino S., Scotton, M., Lucon, M., and Ziliotto, U. (2004). Effect of simulated traffic on vegetative evolution of turfgrass in construction system of soccer pitches. Acta Hortic. 661, 375–379. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.661.51.

  • Macolino, S., Serena, M., Leinauer, B., and Ziliotto, U. (2010). Preliminary findings on the correlation between water-soluble carbohydrate content in stolons and first year green-up of seeded bermudagrass cultivars. HortTechnology 20, 758–763.

  • Magni, S., Volterrani, M., and Miele, S. (2004). Soccer pitches performances as affected by construction method, sand type and turfgrass mixture. Acta Hortic. 661, 281–285. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.661.35.

  • Miele, S., Volterrani, M., Magni, S., and Gaetani, K. (2002). Winter quality of tall fescue turf: Effects of renovation technique and nitrogen fertilization. Italian J. Agron. 6(2), 97–101.

  • Minner, D.D., and Valverde, F.J. (2005). Performance of established cool-season grass species under simulated traffic. Int. Turf. Soc. Res. J. 10, 393–397.

  • Park, B.S., Bokmeyer, J.M., Murphy, J.A., Bonos, S.A., and Meyer, W.A. (2009). Evaluation of tall fescue under simulated wear. Int. Turf. Soc. Res. J. 11, 563–572.

  • Park, B.S, Lawson, T.J., Samaranayake, H., and Murphy, J.A. (2010). Tolerance and recovery of Kentucky bluegrass subjected to seasonal wear. Crop Sci. 50, 1526–1536. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2009.09.0479.

  • Porter Jr., H.L. (1958). Rhizomes in tall fescue. Agron. J. 50, 493–494. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1958.00021962005000080027x.

  • Puhalla, J., Krans, J., and Goatley, M. (1999). Sports Fields: A manual for design, construction and maintenance (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc).

  • Rimi, F., Macolino, S., Richardson, M.D., Karcher, D.E., and Leinauer, B. (2013). Influence of three nitrogen fertilization schedules on bermudagrass and seashore paspalum: I. Spring green-up and fall color retention. Crop Sci. 53, 1161–1167. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2012.09.0562.

  • Sanderson, M.A., Rotz, C.A., Fultz, S.W., and Rayburn, E.B. (2001). Estimating forage mass with a commercial capacitance meter, rising plate meter, and pasture ruler. Agron. J. 93, 1281–1286. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2001.1281.

  • Schery, R.W. (1965). This remarkable Kentucky bluegrass. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 52(3), 444–451. https://doi.org/10.2307/2394808.

  • Shearman, R.C. (1988). Improving sports turf wear tolerance. Proc. of the 58th Ann. Michigan Turf. Conf. 17, 153–155.

  • Shearman, R.C., and Beard, J.B. (1975a). Turfgrass wear mechanisms: I. Wear tolerance of seven turfgrasses species and quantitative methods for determining turfgrass wear injury. Agron. J. 67, 208–211. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1975.00021962006700020009x.

  • Shearman, R.C., and Beard, J.B. (1975b). Turfgrass wear tolerance mechanisms. II. Effects of cell wall constituents on turfgrass wear tolerance. Agron. J. 67, 211–215. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1975.00021962006700020010x.

  • Shearman, R.C., and Beard, J.B. (1975c). Turfgrass wear mechanisms: III. Physiological, morphological, and anatomical characteristics associated with turfgrass wear tolerance. Agron. J. 67, 215–218. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1975.00021962006700020011x.

  • Taivalmaa, S.L., Talvitie, H., Jauhuainen, L., and Niemeläinen, O. (1998). Influence of wear-stress on turfgrass species and cultivars in Finland. J. Sports Turf. Res. Inst. 74, 52–62.

  • Trenholm, L.E., Carrow, R.N., and Duncan, R.R. (2000). Mechanisms of wear tolerance in seashore paspalum and bermudagrass. Crop Sci. 40, 1350–1357. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.4051350x.

  • Unger, P.W., and Kaspar, T.C. (1994). Soil compaction and root growth: a review. Agron. J. 86, 759–766. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1994.00021962008600050004x.

  • Zorzanello, D. (2003). Sistemi costruttivi e miscugli idonei alla costituzione di tappeti erbosi con funzioni ricreative e sportive (2000–2003). Master's Thesis, University of Padova.

Received: 13 July 2015 | Revised: 24 August 2015 | Accepted: 17 November 2015 | Published: 22 February 2016 | Available online: 22 February 2016

previous article     Volume 81 issue 1     next article