Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 80 (6) 316-321 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2015/80.6.7|
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2015 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article
The physiology of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. as a basis for the improvement of ornamental production
1Department of Plant and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
2H.M. The King’s Initiative Centre for Flower and Fruit Propagation, Chiang Mai, Thailand
This review addresses the research on the physiology of Curcuma alismatifolia to improve the understanding of this plant, a tropical flower crop that has become popular as a cut flower, a potted plant and a garden plant. C. alismatifolia Gagnep., called the Siam Tulip or Patumma, is widely cultivated as an ornamental Curcuma for cut flowers and potted plants because of the attractive inflorescence with pink coma bracts rhizomes to the world market. The review considers its distribution (widely in Thailand and Cambodia), growth cycle, flowering physiology, diurnal photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism (including with N-sources, utilization, transports and N2 fixation) and carbohydrate metabolism, which may be beneficial for the improvement of crop production.
carbohydrate metabolism, flowering, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, rhizome quality
Significance of this study
What is already known on this subject?
What are the new findings?
C. alismatifolia is called ‘Siam Tulip’ which is known as an ornamental pot plant and cut flower in the world market. Rhizomes are exported from Thailand to markets in temperate zone in December to January and then they were forced to flower in May to late summer. In general, temperature, light intensity, fertilizer application and sunshine duration are important factors for plant growth and development.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
Most of the environmental factors affecting growth and development of this plant are summarized and reviewed, including distribution and morphology, growth cycle, flowering physiology and development, diurnal photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, plant growth regulators and post-harvest physiology.
These findings will be beneficial for C. alismatifolia forcing and also for improvement of flower and rhizome qualities by growers.
Anuwong, C., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., Ruamrungsri, S., and Ohyama, T. (2014a). Storage protein characteristics in the storage organs of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech. 89(5), 501–507.
Anuwong, C., Ohyama, T., Sueyoshi, K., Ohtake, N. and Ruamrungsri, S. (2014b). Anatomical investigation of root and leaf of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. cv. Chiangmai Pink affecting N uptake. Proceedings of International Graduate Research Conference, 12 December 2014, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. pp. 157–162.
Apavatjrut, P., Anuntalabhochai, S., Sirirugsa, P., and Alisi, C. (1999). Molecular markers in the identification of some early flowering Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) Species. Ann. Bot. 84, 529–534. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1999.0936.
Aslam, M., Oaks, A., and Huffaker, R.C. (1976). Effect of light and glucose on the induction of nitrate reductase and on the distribution of nitrate in etiolated barley leaves. Plant Physiol. 58, 588–591. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.58.4.588.
Bunya-atichart, K., Ketsa, S., and Van Doorn, W.G. (2004). Postharvest physiology of Curcuma alismatifolia flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology 34, 219–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2004.05.009.
Changjeraja, R. (2009). Gene expression and factors affecting flowering of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Ph.D. Thesis, The Graduate School, Chiang Mai University. 120 pp.
Changjeraja, R., Mekchay, S., Potapohn, N., and Ruamrungsri, S. (2007). Effect of temperature on growth, nitrogen and carbohydrate contents in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Agri. Sci. J. 38(2), 151–158.
Chidburee, A. (2008). Effects of day length and red light on growth of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. rhizome. Ph.D. Thesis, The Graduate School, Chiang Mai University. 145 pp.
Chidburee, A., Ohyama, T., and Ruamrungsri, S. (2009). Changes of food reserve during rhizome formation of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sustainability in Food Production Agriculture and the Environment in Asia. Niigata. Department of Agricultural Extension. (1995). Patumma. (Bangkok: Agricultural Co-operation Group Publishing), 131 pp.
Criley, R.A. (2013). Blueprint programming for year-round forcing of Curcuma alismatifolia. Acta Hortic. 1000, 209–216. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.1000.27.
Deane-Drummond, C.E., Clarkson, D.T., and Johnson, C.B. (1980). The effect of differential root and shoot temperature on the nitrate reductase activity, assayed in Vivo and in Vitro, in roots of Hordeum vulgare (barley): Relationships with diurnal changes in endogenous malate and sugar. Planta 148, 455–461. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02395315.
Edwards, J., and Horton, B.D. (1982). Interaction of peach seedlings to NO3:NH4 ratios in nutrient solutions. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107, 142–147.
Fukai, S., and Udomdee, W. (2005). Inflorescence and flower initiation and development in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. (Zingiberaceae). Jap. J. Trop. Agri. 49(1), 14–20.
Hagiladi, A., Umiel, N., and Yang, X.H. (1997). Curcuma alismatifolia II. Effects of temperature and daylength on the development of flowers and propagules. Acta Hortic. 430, 755–761. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.430.120.
Hart, J.W. (1988). Light and plant growth (London: Urwin Hyman Ltd.), 204 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5996-8.
Hongpakdee, P. (2010). Effect of environmental factors on some phytohormones in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Ph.D. Thesis, The Graduate School, Chiang Mai University. 212 pp.
Hongpakdee, P., Siritrakulsak, P., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., Ohyama, T., and Ruamrungsri, S. (2010). Changes in endogenous abscisic acid, trans-zeatin riboside, indole-3-acetic acid levels and the photosynthetic rate during the growth cycle of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. in different production seasons. Eur. J. Hortic. Sci. 75(5), 204–213.
Inkham, C., Sueyoshi, K., Ohtake, N., Ohyama, T., and Ruamrungsri, S. (2011a). Effects of temperature and nitrogen sources on growth and nitrogen assimilation of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Thai J. Agri. Sci. 44(3), 145–153.
Inkham, C., Sueyoshi, K., Ohtake, N., Ohyama, T., and Ruamrungsri, S. (2011b). Critical nitrogen level determination in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Eur. J. Hortic. Sci. 6(5/6), 188–193.
Khuankaew, T., Ruamrungsri, S., Ito, S., Sato, T., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., and Ohyama, T. (2010). Assimilation and translocation of nitrogen and carbon in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Plant Biology 12, 414–423. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2009.00229.x.
Kuehny, J.S. (2003). Ornamental gingers as flowering potted plants – Part 3: photoperiod on growth and development. Special Research Report # 511: Production Technology. The American Floral Endowment.
Kuehny, J.S., Sarmiento, M., Paz, M.P., and Branch, P.C. (2005). Effect of light intensity, photoperiod and plant growth retardants on production of Zingiberacea as pot plants. Acta Hortic. 683, 145–154. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.683.15.
Larsen, K., and Larsen, S.S. (2006). Gingers of Thailand (Chiang Mai: Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden), 184 pp.
Marschner, H. (1986). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants (London: Academic Press), 674 pp.
Mengel, K., and Kirkby, E.A. (1987). Principles of plant nutrition (Worblaufen-Bern: International Potash Institute), 685 pp.
Nelson, P.V. (1998). Chemical growth regulation. In Greenhouse operation and management (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall).
Ohtake, N., Ruamrungsri, S., Ito, S., Sueyoshi, K., Ohyama, T., and Apavatjrut, P. (2006). Effect of nitrogen supply on nitrogen and carbohydrate constituent accumulation in rhizomes and storage roots of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 52, 711–716. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2006.00094.x.
Paz, M.P. (2003). Rhizome manipulation affects growth and development of ornamental gingers. M.Sc. Thesis, Louisiana State University. 100 pp. http://etd02.lnx390.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-1110103-154436/.
Pubuuopiend, J. (1992). Growth and Floral Development of Curcuma sparganifolia Gagnep. M.Sc. Thesis, Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai. 82 pp.
Ruamrungsri, S., and Apavatjrut, P. (2003). Effect of nutrient deficiency on the growth and development of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on the family Zingiberaceae. pp. 98–104.
Ruamrungsri, S., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., and Ohyama, T. (2006). Determination of the uptake and utilization of nitrogen in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. using 15N isotope. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 52, 221–225. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2006.00027.x.
Ruamrungsri, S., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., Suwanthada, C., Apavatjrut, P., and Ohyama, T. (2001). Changes in nitrogenous compounds, carbohydrate and abscisic acid in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. during dormancy. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech. 76(1), 48–51.
Ruamrungsri, S., Ohyama, T., Konno, T., and Ikarashi, T. (1996). Deficiency of N, P, K, Ca, Mg or Fe mineral nutrient in Narcissus cv. ‘Garden Giant’. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 42(4), 809–820. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1996.10416628.
Ruamrungsri, S., Uthai-Butra, J., Wichailux, O., and Apavatjrut, P. (2007). Planting date and night break treatment affected off-season flowering in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 59(1/2), 173–182.
Sabu, M., and Skornickova, J. (2003). Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.: a source of east Indian arrowroot. Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on the family Zingiberaceae, Khon Kaen, Thailand. pp. 198–200.
Sarmiento, M.J., and Kuehny, J.S. (2000). Effect of plant growth regulators on flowering and postproduction of Curcuma alismatifolia ‘Chiang Mai Pink’. HortScience 35(4), 563.
Sarmiento, M.J., and Kuehny, J.S. (2003). Efficacy of paclobutrazol and gibberellin on growth and flowering of three Curcuma species. HortTechnology 13(3), 493–496.
Sirirugsa, P., Larsen, K., and Maknoi, C. (2007). The genus Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae): distribution and classification with reference to species diversity in Thailand. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 59(1/2), 203–220.
Siritrakulsak, P. (2010). Effects of planting date, night break treatment and fertilizer application on physiological responses of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Ph.D. Thesis, Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai. 225 pp.
Siritrakulsak, P., Meechoui, S., and Ruamrungsri, S. (2010). Influences of night break treatment on photosynthetic rate of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. J. Agri. 26(2), 127–135.
Thepsukhon, A., Choonluchanon, S., Tajima, S., Nomura, M., and Ruamrungsri, S. (2013). Identifications of endophytic bacteria associated with N2 fixation and IAA synthesis as growth promoters in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. J. Plant Nutr. 36, 1424–1438. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2013.793712.
Woraurai, P. (1991). Ornamental bulb production technology. In Ornamental and Flowering Plant Production Technology (Bangkok, Thailand: Association for Ornamental and Flowering Plants), pp. 51–53 (in Thai).
Received: 9 December 2014 | Revised: 19 May 2015 | Accepted: 10 July 2015 | Published: 21 December 2015 | Available online: 21 December 2015