Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 80 (6) 296-305 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2015/80.6.5|
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2015 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article
Effect of interstocks on the photosynthetic characteristics and carbon distribution of young apple trees during the vigorous growth period of shoots
Y.Q. Zhou1,2,*, S.J. Qin1,*, X.X. Ma2, J.E. Zhang2, P. Zhou3, M. Sun2, B.S. Wang2, H.F. Zhou2 and D.G. Lyu1
1College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China
2Liaoning Institute of Pomology, Yingkou, Liaoning, China
3Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, China
*These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Interstocks are widely used in high-density orchards at cold areas with low-nutrient soil in recent decades. The effects of interstocks on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and translocation of photosynthates were determined by using 13C tracing method in 3-year-old ‘Hanfu’/GM256/Malus baccata (HF/GM/MB) trees (with interstocks) and ‘Hanfu’/Malus baccata (HF/MB) trees (non-interstocked) during the vigorous growth period of the shoots. Compared with HF/MB, HF/GM/MB leaves have greater leaf area, specific leaf weight, apparent quantum yield, carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll a content and chlorophyll a/b, and could utilize light energy and CO2 more efficiently. Further, the HF/GM/MB leaves have greater carbon assimilation ability than the HF/MB leaves. The 13C partition in the aerial parts of the HF/MB trees showed a gradual decrease in the following order: shoots > trunks > 1-year-old branches > rootstocks. In contrast, the following order was observed in the HF/GM/MB trees: shoots > interstocks > 1-year-old branches > rootstocks > trunks. The 13C partition of the thick roots of HF/GM/MB declined with increase in 13C in the fine roots, but this trend was reversed in HF/MB. The interstocks have little effect on the velocity of 13C translocation from the shoots to the roots, but the sink strength of the interstocks changed the competitive capacity of the sink organs for photoassimilates. These findings suggest that GM256 as an interstock has the potential to induce growth rates of leaves of ‘Hanfu’ apple and does not hinder the translocation of photoassimilates in interstocks.
13C translocation, dwarfing, gas exchange, leaf development, phenological period, roots
Significance of this study
What is already known on this subject?
What are the new findings?
It was previously shown that not only scions but also rootstocks play a pivotal role in tree photosynthesis. However, the effects of interstock on the photosynthetic characteristics of scions leaves and carbon translocation in apple trees are largely unknown.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
Interstocks have the potential to induce growth rates of scions leaves and improve leaf carbon assimilation ability during the vigorous growth period of shoots. The sink strength of interstocks affected the competitive capacity of sink organs for photosynthates, which in turn led to differences in 13C allocation between the interstocked and noninterstocked apple trees.
Selection of an appropriate interstock, which has little effect on the photosynthates translocation from the shoots to the roots, is an important parameter to consider for the establishment of high-density apple orchards using interstocks in cold areas with low fertile soil.
Atkinson, C.J., Else, M.A., Taylor, L., and Dover, C.J. (2003). Root and stem hydraulic conductivity as determinants of growth potential in grafted trees of apple (Malus pumila Mill.). J. Exp. Bot. 54, 1221–1229. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erg132.
Bosa, K., Jadczuk-Tobjasz, E., Kalaji, M., Majewska, M., and Allakhverdiev, S. (2014). Evaluating the effect of rootstocks and potassium level on photosynthetic productivity and yield of pear trees. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 61, 231–237. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443714020022.
Chen, Y., and Xu, D.Q. (2006). Two patterns of leaf photosynthetic response to irradiance transition from saturating to limiting one in some plant species. New Phytologist 169, 789–797. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01624.x.
Ciobotari, G., Morariu, A., and Gradinariu, G. (2009). Aspects of grafting influence on carbon and nitrogen movement of some pear (Pyrus sativa) cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 37, 134–138.
Di Vaio, C., Cirillo, C., Buccheri, M., and Limongelli, F. (2009). Effect of interstock (M.9 and M.27) on vegetative growth and yield of apple trees (cv 'Annurca'). Scientia Horticulturae 119, 270–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.08.019.
Dolgun, O., Yıldırım, A., Polat, M., Yıldırım, F., and Aşkın, A. (2009). Apple graft formation in relation to growth rate features of rootstocks. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4, 530–534.
Franks, P.J., Drake, P.L., and Beerling, D.J. 2009. Plasticity in maximum stomatal conductance constrained by negative correlation between stomatal size and density: an analysis using Eucalyptus globulus. Plant, Cell & Environment 32, 1737–1748. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.002031.x.
Fujisawa, H., and Moriya, Y. (2010). Influence of rootstock and soil moisture on leaf photosynthesis of apple trees on JM1, JM7, JM8, and M9 rootstocks. Acta Hortic. 932, 441–446. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.932.64.
Génard, M., Dauzat, J., Franck, N., Lescourret, F., Moitrier, N., Vaast, P., and Vercambre, G. (2008). Carbon allocation in fruit trees: from theory to modelling. Trees 22, 269–282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-007-0176-5.
Gonçalves, B., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Santos, A., Silva, A.P., Bacelar, E., Correia, C., and Rosa, E. (2006). Scion-rootstock interaction affects the physiology and fruit quality of sweet cherry. Tree Physiology 26, 93–104. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/26.1.93.
Gonçalves, B., Correia, C.M., Silva, A.P., Bacelar, E.A., Santos, A., Ferreira, H., and Moutinho-Pereira, J.M. (2007). Variation in xylem structure and function in roots and stems of scion-rootstock combinations of sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium L.). Trees 21, 121–130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-006-0102-2.
Grossman, Y.L., and DeJong, T.M. (1994). Peach: A simulation model of reproductive and vegetative growth in peach trees. Tree Physiology 14, 329–345. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/14.4.329.
Gyeviki, M., Hrotkó, K., and Honfi, P. (2012). Comparison of leaf population of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees on different rootstocks. Scientia Hortic. 141, 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.03.015.
Hetherington, A.M., and Woodward, F.I. (2003). The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Nature 424, 901–908. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01843.
Ho, L.C. (1992). Fruit growth and sink strength. Fruit and seed production. Aspects of development, environmental physiology and ecology. Society of Experimental Biology, Seminar series (Cambridge University Press), pp. 101–124. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752322.007.
Karlidağ, H., Aslantaş, R., and Eşitken, A. (2014). Effects of interstock (M9) length grafted onto MM106 rootstock on sylleptic shoot formation, growth and yield in some apple cultivars. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi – Journal of Agricultural Sciences 20, 331–336. https://doi.org/10.15832/tbd.63462.
Koike, T., Kitao, M., Maruyama, Y., Mori, S., and Lei, T.T. (2001). Leaf morphology and photosynthetic adjustments among deciduous broad-leaved trees within the vertical canopy profile. Tree Physiology 21, 951–958. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/21.12-13.951.
Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Method Enzymol. 148, 350–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1.
Lu, Y., Watanabe, A., and Kimura, M. (2002). Input and distribution of photosynthesized carbon in a flooded rice soil. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16, 321–328. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GB001864.
Marcelis, L.F.M. (1996). Sink strength as a determinant of dry matter partitioning in the whole plant. Journal of Experimental Botany 47, 1281–1291. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/47.Special_Issue.1281.
Marcelis, L.F.M., and Heuvelink, E. (2007). Concepts of modelling carbon allocation among plant organs. Functional-Structural Plant Modelling in Crop Production 22, 103–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-6034-3_9.
Marcon, F.J.L., Kretzschmar, A.A., and Rufato, L. (2010). Evaluation of the productive and vegetative aspects of the cultivar ʻImperial Galaʼ apple tree with EM-9 interstem in different lengths. Acta Hortic. 872, 375–378. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.872.53.
Martínez-Alcántara, B., Rodriguez-Gamir, J., Martínez-Cuenca, M., Iglesias, D., Primo-Millo, E., and Forner-Giner, M. (2013). Relationship between hydraulic conductance and citrus dwarfing by the flying dragon rootstock (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raft var. monstruosa). Trees 27, 629–638. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-012-0817-1.
Morinaga, K., and Ikeda, F. (1990). The effects of several rootstocks on photosynthesis, distribution of photosynthetic product, and growth of young satsuma mandarin trees. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 59, 29–34. https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.59.29.
Morinaga, K., Imai, S., Yakushiji, H., and Koshita, Y. (2003). Effects of fruit load on partitioning of 15N and 13C, respiration, and growth of grapevine roots at different fruit stages. Scientia Hortic. 97, 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(02)00199-1.
Seleznyova, A.N., Tustin, D.S., and Thorp, T.G. (2008). Apple dwarfing rootstocks and interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle: precocious transition to flowering affects the composition and vigour of annual shoots. Annals of Botany 101, 679–687. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcn007.
Simkhada, E.P., Sekozawa, Y., Sugaya, S., and Gemma, H. (2007). Translocation and distribution of 13C-photosynthates in ʻFuyuʼ persimmon (Diospyros kaki) grafted onto different rootstocks. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 5, 184–189.
Singh, V. and Rajan, S. (2009). Changes in photosynthetic rate, specific leaf weight and sugar contents in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Open Horticulture Journal 2, 40–43.
Sotiropoulos, T.E. (2008). Performance of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivar ʻImperial Double Red Deliciousʼ grafted on five rootstocks. Horticultural Science-UZPI (Czech Republic) 35, 7–11.
Stutte, G.W., Baugher, T.A., Walter, S.P., Leach, D.W., Glenn, D.M., and Tworkoski, T.J. (1994). Rootstock and training system affect dry-matter and carbohydrate distribution in ʻGolden Deliciousʼ apple trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119, 492–497.
Teng, Y., Tamura, F., and Tanabe, K. (2002). Partitioning patterns of photosynthates from different shoot types in ʻNijisseikiʼ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 77, 758–765.
Tombesi, S., Johnson, R.S., Day, K.R., and DeJong, T.M. (2010). Relationships between xylem vessel characteristics, calculated axial hydraulic conductance and size-controlling capacity of peach rootstocks. Annals of Botany 105, 327–331. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp281.
Toselli, M., Marcolini, G., Flore, J., and Lombardini, L. (2014). Leaf assimilation, carbon translocation and root respiration in ʻBudagovski 9ʼ apple cuttings grown in low soil moisture condition. European Journal of Horticultural Science 79, 241–247.
Wang, L.Q., Tang, F., Zhang, J., and Shu, H.R. (2003). Effect of dwarfing rootstock on carbohydrate transportation and distribution of apple. Acta Agriculturae Nucleatae Sinica 17, 212–214.
Wang, Z.Y., Zhao, Y.J., and Tong, D.Z. (1998). Effect of dwarfing interstock on distribution and transportation of 14C-assimilates content of apple tree. Journal of Shanxi Agricultural Sciences 26, 10–14.
Webster, A.D. (2004). Vigour mechanisms in dwarfing rootstocks for temperate fruit trees. Acta Hortic. 658, 29–41. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.658.1.
Xia, G.H. and Luo, X.S. (1994). Compositions and translocation characters of 14C-assimilates at the shoot-growing stage in young apple trees. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica 9, 86–91.
Yano, T., Umemiya, Y., Inoue, H., Shimizu, Y., and Shinkai, S. (2003). Effects of rootstock and interstock on 15N-labeled nitrogen absorption and distribution in ʻKawanakajima Hakutoʼ peach (Prunus persica) trees. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 72, 177–181. https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.72.177.
Received: 27 February 2015 | Revised: 19 June 2015 | Accepted: 19 May 2015 | Published: 21 December 2015 | Available online: 21 December 2015