Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 80 (4) 177-182 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2015/80.4.5|
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2015 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article
Changes of microbial population in different rootzones of 'TifEagle' bermudagrass during establishment
J. Zhang1,2, Y. Liu1 and J.M. Zhang1
1 Grassland Department, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
2 Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States
Microbes play important roles in soil nutrient cycling, thatch decomposition and antagonism towards pathogens. As turfgrass and golf industry are blooming in China in the past few decades, concerns arise regarding the role of sand-based rootzones of putting green as a favorable habitat for the development of microbes. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of different soil mixtures on the dynamic changes of soil microbial population and the turf quality during the first year of establishment. A greenhouse study was conducted with TifEagle bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Χ C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] planted in the pots with five types of rootzones as follows: sand (A), native soil (B), sand mixed with native soil (C) (85: 15 v/v), sand mixed with peat (D) (85: 15, v/v); sand mixed with native soil and peat (E) (85: 7.5: 7.5 v/v/v). Microbial populations (bacteria, Bacillus spp., actinomycetes, and fungi), hydrolysable nitrogen (HRN) and organic matter (OM), and turfgrass quality were evaluated bimonthly and root and shoot biomass were determined at the end of the study. During the first-year establishment, bacteria and fungi populations increased from 6.797.02 to 7.277.43 lg cfu g-1 dry soil and from 4.364.58 to 5.826.35 lg cfu g-1 dry, respectively for sand-based rootzones but not Bacillus spp. and actinomycetes two months after planting, coupling with the decrease in soil OM and HRN. A decline in bacteria, Bacillus spp., and fungi occurred four months after planting, and maintained stable after six months of planting. Turfgrass quality was positively correlated with microbial population in Bacillus spp. (r=0.43, p < 0.001) and actinomycetes (r=0.50, p<0.001) and soil nutrient status in HRN (r=0.55, p<0.0001) and OM (r=0.65, p<0.0001). Sand-based rootzone mixtures were adequate to maintain turfgrass quality (6.47.6) and microbial population. Grasses grown in them had higher root:shoot ratio (1.922.06) than pure sand (0.75) and native soil (0.50) alone.
bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, turfgrass quality, organic matter, available nitrogen
Significance of this study
What is already known on this subject?
What are the new findings?
It has been long suspected that sand-based rootzone in putting green does not create a favorable environment for the benefits of microorganisms. However, there are some studies reporting differently that the microbial population of mature putting rootzone can reach the same level with that was constructed with native soils even newly constructed putting green with cool-season turfgrass.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
The study showed that sand-based rootzone mixtures were adequate to hold decent microbial population. Warm-season turfgrass grown in them had higher root:shoot ratio than pure sand and native soil alone. Turfgrass quality was also found to be correlated with certain microbial groups.
The use of sand-based mixtures with amendments is further warranted as it can promote both root growth and microbial population. The addition of organic matter would likely stimulate microbial activity.
- Alexander, M. (1977). Introduction to soil microbiology (New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons).
- Aoyagi, T., Kageyama, K., and Hyakumachi, M. (1998). Characterization and survival of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 LP associated with large patch disease of zoysia grass. Plant Disease 82, 857863. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.19220.127.116.117.
- Bais, H.P., Weir, T.L., Perry, L.G., Gilroy, S., and Vivanco, J.M. (2006). The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57, 233266. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105159.
- Bao, S.D. (2007). Agricultural chemistry of soil analysis (Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press).
- Beard, J.B., and Green, R.L. (1994). The role of turfgrasses in environmental protection and their benefits to humans. Journal of Environmental Quality 23, 452460. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1994.00472425002300030007x.
- Bigelow, C.A., Bowman, D.C., and Wollum, A.G. (2002). Characterization of soil microbial population dynamics in newly constructed sand-based rootzones. Crop Science 42, 16111614. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2002.1611.
- Bonifas, K.D., Walters, D.T., Cassman, K.G., and Lindquist, J.L. (2005). Nitrogen supply affects root: shoot ratio in corn and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science 53, 670675. https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-05-002R.1.
- Cheng, W., and Coleman, D.C. (1990). Effect of living roots on soil organic matter decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22, 781787. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(90)90157-U.
- Davet, P. (2004). Microbial ecology of the soil and plant growth. (NH, USA: Science Publishers, Inc.)
- Dell, E.A., Bowman, D., Rufty, T., and Shi, W. (2008). Intensive management affects composition of betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers in turfgrass systems. Microbial Ecology 56, 178190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9335-x.
- Dexter, A.R. (2004). Soil physical quality: Part I. Theory, effects of soil texture, density, and organic matter, and effects on root growth. Geoderma 120, 201214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2003.09.004.
- Gaussoin, R. (2003). Separating the myths from the truths of turfgrass soil microbiology. 73rd annual Michigan turfgrass foundation conference. Online: http://archive.lib.msu.edu/tic/mitgc/article/200362.pdf.
- Graff, A., and Conrad, R. (2005). Impact of flooding on soil bacterial communities associated with poplar (Populus spp.) trees. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 53, 401415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsec.2005.01.009.
- Guertal, E.A., and Evans, D.L. (2006). Nitrogen rate and mowing height effects on 'TifEagle' bermudagrass establishment. Crop Science 46, 17721778. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2006.01-0006.
- Guo, S.Y., Dong, Z., and Gong, H.L. (2006). Effects of irrigation using reclaimed water on soil microbial population of turfgrass. China Environmental Science 26, 482485.
- Hilbert, D.W. (1990). Optimization of plant root: shoot ratios and internal nitrogen concentration. Annals of Botany 66, 9199.
- Hodges, C.F. (1990). The microbiology of non-pathogens and minor root pathogens in high sand content greens. Golf Course Mgt. 58, 6075.
- Huang, B., Liu, X., and Fry, J.D. (1998). Effects of high temperature and poor soil aeration on root growth and viability of creeping bentgrass. Crop Science 38, 16181622. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1998.0011183X003800060034x.
- Juma, N.G. (1999). The pedosphere and its dynamics. A systems approach to soil science. Volume 1: Introduction to soil science and soil resources (Edmonton, Canada: Quality Color Press Inc.), 315 pp.
- Mancino, C.F., Barakat, M., and Maricic, A. (1993). Soil and thatch microbial populations in an 80% sand: 20% peat creeping bentgrass putting green. HortScience 28, 189191.
- Mandic-Mulec, I., and Prosser, J.I. (2011). Diversity of endospore-forming bacteria in soil: characterization and driving mechanisms; Endospore-forming soil bacteria (Springer), pp. 3159.
- McCarthy, A.J. (1987). Lignocellulose-degrading actinomycetes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 3, 145163. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1987.tb02456.x.
- Moore, J.F. (2004). Revising the USGAʼs recommendations for a method of putting green construction. USGA Green Section Record 42, 14.
- Shao, H.L., Li, N., and Wang, X.H. (2005). Effects of civil sewage and sludge on the growth of turfgrass. Taiyuan Technology 10, 35.
- Sylvia, D.M., Fuhrmann, J.J., Hartel, P., and Zuberer, D.A. (2005). Principles and applications of soil microbiology (New Jersey, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall).
- Tate III, R.L. (2000). Soil microbiology, 2nd Edition (New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons).
- Tucker, B.J., McCarty, L.B., Liu, H., Wells, C.E., and Rieck, J.R. (2006). Mowing Height, Nitrogen Rate, and Biostimulant Influence Root Development of Field-grown ʻTifEagleʼ Bermudagrass. HortScience 41, 805807.
- Xu, G.H., and Zhen, H.Y. (1986). Handbook of analytical methodology of soil microorganisms (Beijing: Agriculture Press).
- Xu, L., Li, Q., and Jiang, C. (1996). Diversity of soil actinomycetes in Yunnan, China. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 244248.
Received: 1 January 2015 | Revised: 12 May 2015 | Accepted: 19 May 2015 | Published: 24 August 2015 | Available online: 24 August 2015