Eur.J.Hortic.Sci. 80 (4) 155-161 | DOI: 10.17660/eJHS.2015/80.4.2|
ISSN 1611-4426 print and 1611-4434 online | © ISHS 2015 | European Journal of Horticultural Science | Original article
Influence of nutrient loading on reactions upon frost and drought stress of Rosa majalis
H. Bohne1, J. Wanjiku1, A.-K. Rathke2, S. Humpert3 and D. Gerhard4
1 Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Woody Plant and Propagation Physiology, Leibniz University of
Hannover, Hannover, Germany
2 Sarstedt, Germany
3 Lautenthal, Germany
4 School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
Nutrient loading applies more fertilizer compared to non-loading. Conventional loading delivers nutrients to the plants in a more or less constant rate mainly using slow release fertilizer; for exponential loading liquid fertilizer is used increasing exponentially towards the end of the vegetation period. Nutrient loading aims to build nutrient reserves, especially N, in the plants to improve transplanting success. Until now the effect of this fertilization technique on abiotic stress reactions is not known. The reactions of Rosa majalis cultivated for one vegetation period (2010) without loading and with conventional or exponential loading were investigated in early frost (autumn 2010), late frost and drought (spring resp. summer 2011) under controlled conditions. In all treatments, the absolute level of damage, relative electrolyte leakage (REL), was low in early frost. However, relative electrolyte leakage significantly increased at -8°C for the exponentially loaded plants while this was the case only at -16°C for the conventionally loaded and non-loaded plants. Similarly for late frost, REL increased already at -5°C for the exponentially loaded plants and only at -9°C for the non-loaded and conventionally loaded ones. At -5°C the absolute level of damage was low for plants from all treatments and high for -9°C. In both frost experiments, possible cryoprotective compounds like sucrose and glucose in most cases did not differ between the previous fertilization treatments.
However, concerning drought reactions, exponentially loaded plants had an advantage compared over conventionally loaded and non-loaded ones in postponing wilting. They closed their stomata earlier and synthesised highest concentrations of proline and sucrose compared to non-loaded and conventionally loaded plants. Possible reasons are discussed. The results indicate that the technique of exponential nutrient loading might be helpful to improve the plants’ ability to perform well after being transplanted to drought prone sites. However, increased frost sensitivity has to be considered as well.
glucose, proline, relative electrolyte leakage, stomatal conductance, sucrose, stress tolerance
Significance of this study
What is already known on this subject?
What are the new findings?
Nutrient loading is a fertilization technique known to build up reserves in the plant without increasing its size during the nursery phase. The aim is to improve outplanting performance. After outplanting, depending on the site, different stresses affect the plants. The influence of the nutritional state of the plant on frost and drought is a matter of controversy.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
Although on a low level, damage after early and late frost of exponentially loaded Rosa majalis was higher compared to conventionally loaded and non-loaded plants. Drought tolerance was improved in the exponentially loaded plants.
Nursery growing regimes influence plants attributes and subsequent performance when exposed to frost and drought stress.
- Bates, L.S. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39, 205–207. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00018060.
- Bates, D., Maechler, M., and Bolker, B. (2011). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. R package version 0.999375-42. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4.
- Bigras, F.J., Gonzalez, A., d'Aoust, A.L., and Hébert, C. (1996). Frost hardiness, bud phenology and growth of containerized Picea mariana seedlings grown at three nitrogen levels and three temperature regimes. New Forests 12, 243–259.
- Bohne, H., Wanjiku, J., Rathke, A.-K., Humpert, S., and Gerhard, D. (2014). Influence of nutrient loading on growth, N-, P- and K-concentrations and outplanting performance of Rosa majalis. Europ. J. Hort. Sci. 79(1), 29–35.
- Fløistad, I.S., and Kohmann, K. (2004). Influence of nutrient supply on spring frost hardiness and time of bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. New Forests 27, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025085403026.
- Grossnickle, S.C. (2005). Why seedlings survive: influence of plant attributes. New Forests 43, 711–738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-012-9336-6.
- Guo, F.Q., Young, J., and Crawford, N.M. (2003). The nitrate transporter AtNRT1.1 (CHL1) functions in stomatal opening and contributes to drought susceptibility in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 15, 107–117. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.006312.
- Hothorn, T., Bretz, F., and Westfall, P. (2008). Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biometrical Journal 50(3), 346–363. https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.200810425.
- Jalkanen, R.E., Redfern, D.B., and Sheppard, L.J. (1998). Nutrient deficits increase frost hardiness in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) needles. For. Ecol. Manag. 107, 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00338-1.
- Kuznetsov, V.V., and Shevyakova, N.I. (1999). Proline under stress: biological role, metabolism, and regulation. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 46, 274–289.
- McKay, H.M. (1992). Electrolyte leakage from fine roots of conifer seedlings: a rapid method of plant vitality following cold storage. Can. J. For. Res. 22, 1371–1377. https://doi.org/10.1139/x92-182.
- Miller, B.D., Timmer, V.R., Staples, C., and Farintosh, L. (1995). Exponential fertilization of white spruce greenhouse transplants at Orono Nursery. In Manual for exponential nutrient loading of seedlings to improve outplanting performance on competitive forest sites. NODA/NFP Technical report; TR-25, V.R. Timmer and A.S. Aidelbaum, eds. (Toronto, ON.: Queen's Printers for Ontario, Nursery Notes No. 130), 13 pp.
- Padilla, F.M., and Pugnaire, F.I. (2007). Rooting depth and soil moisture control Mediterranean woody seedling survival during drought. Funct. Ecol. 21, 489–495. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2007.01267.x.
- R Development Core Team. (2011). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. (Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing). URL http://www.R-project.org/.
- Rikala, R., and Repo, T. (1997). The effect of late summer fertilization on the frost hardening of second-year Scots pine seedlings. New Forests 14, 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006505919556.
- Salifu, K.F., Jacobs, D.F., and Birge, Z.K.D. (2009). Nursery nitrogen loading improves field performance of bareroot oak seedlings planted on abandoned mine lands. Restoration Ecology 17(3), 339–349. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00373.x.
- Salifu, K.F., and Timmer, V.R. (2003). Optimizing nitrogen loading of Picea mariana seedlings during nursery culture. Can. J. For. Res. 33, 1287–1294. https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-057.
- Sánchez, E., Garcia, P.C., López-Lefebre, L.R., Rivero, R.M., Manuel, J., and Romero, L. (2002). Proline metabolism in response to nitrogen deficiency in French bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ‘Strike’). Plant growth regulation 36(3), 261–265. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016583430792.
- Scagel, F.C., Regan, P.R., Hummel, R., and Bi, G. (2010). Cold tolerance of container-grown green ash is influenced by nitrogen fertilizer type and rate. HortTechnology 20(2), 292–303.
- Schüte, G., and Sarvas, M. (1999). Elektrolytverlustmessung als Testmethode zur Vitalitätsbestimmung von Eichensämlingen (Quercus robur L.). Forstarchiv 70, 133–138.
- Selig, M., Bohne, H., and Gerhard, D. (2011). Auswirkungen einer Nachdüngung im Sommer auf die Frosthärte von Salix cinerea L. sowie auf ausgewählte Nährstoffe und Biomarker. Gesunde Pflanzen 63, 129–133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10343-011-0256-8.
- Sennerby-Forsse, L., and Von Fircks, H.A. (1987). Ultrastructure of cells in the cambial region during winter harding and spring dehardening in Salix dasyclados Wimm. grown at two nutrient levels. Trees 1, 151–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00193558.
- Sutinen, M.L., Palta, J.P., and Reich, P.B. (1992). Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of Pinus nigra and Pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method. Tree Physiology 11, 241–254. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/11.3.241.
- Tan, W., and Hogan, G.D. (1997). Physiological and morphological responses to nitrogen limitation in jack pine seedlings: potential implications for drought tolerance. New Forests 14, 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006546014858.
- Taulavuori, K., Taulavuori, E., Niinimaa, A., and Laine, K. (2001). Acceleration of frost hardening in Vaccinium vitis-idaea by nitrogen fertilization. Oecologia 127(3), 321–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420100661.
- Thomas, F.M., and Ahlers, U. (1999). Effects of excess nitrogen on frost hardiness and freezing injury of above-ground tissue in young oaks (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur). New Phytol. 144, 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.1999.00501.x.
- Timmer, V.R. (1996). Exponential nutrient loading: a new fertilization technique to improve seedling performance on competitive sites. New Forests 13, 275–295.
- Timmer, V.R., and Aidelbaum, A.S. (1996). Manual for exponential nutrient loading of seedlings to improve outplanting performance on competitive forest sites. NODA/NFP Technical report; TR-25.
- Villar-Salvador, P., Puértolas, J., Penuelas, J.L., and Planelles, R. (2005). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the drought and frost resistance of Mediterranean forest species. Invest. Agrar. Sist. Recur. For. 14(3), 408–418.
- Zhao, D., MacKown, C.T., Starks, P.J., and Kindiger, B.K. (2010). Rapid analysis of nonstructural carbohydrate components in grass forage using microplate enzymatic assays. Crop Sc. 50(4), 1537–1545.
www.infoflora.ch/ ; download 25 July 2014.
Received: 3 August 2014 | Revised: 13 February 2015 | Accepted: 10 March 2015 | Published: 24 August 2015 | Available online: 24 August 2015