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Journal of the American Pomological Society
(J Am Pom Soc)

American Pomological Society

Volume 71 Number 3 Article 3 Pages: 149-166
Year 2017 Month 7
Title: Budagovsky, Geneva, Pillnitz, and Malling Apple Rootstocks Affect 'Honeycrisp' Performance Over the First Five Years of the 2010 NC-140 'Honeycrisp' Apple Rootstock Trial
Authors: Wesley Autio, Terence Robinson, Brent Black, Suzanne Blatt, Diana Cochran, Winfred Cowgill, Cheryl Hampson, Emily Hoover, Gregory Lang, Diane Miller, Ioannis Minas, Rafael Parra Quezada, and Matt Stasiak
Citation
Abstract:
In 2010, an orchard trial of apple rootstocks was established at 13 locations in the United States, Canada, and Mexico using ‘Honeycrisp’ as the scion cultivar. Rootstocks included two named clones from the Budagovsky series (B.9, B.10), seven unreleased Budagovsky clones (B.7-3-150, B.7-20-21, B.64-194, B.67-5-32, B.70-6- 8, B.70-20-20, and B.71-7-22), four named Cornell-Geneva clones [Geneva® 11 (G.11), Geneva® 41 (G.41), Geneva® 202 (G.202), and Geneva® 935 (G.935)], nine unreleased Cornell-Geneva clones (CG.2034, CG. 3001, CG.4003, CG.4004, CG.4013, CG.4214, CG.4814, CG.5087, and CG.5222), one named clone from the Pillnitz series (Supp.3), two unreleased Pillnitz clones (PiAu 9-90 and PiAu 51-11), and three Malling clones as controls (M.9 NAKBT337, M.9 Pajam 2, and M.26 EMLA). All trees were trained as Tall Spindles. After 5 years, the greatest mortality was for trees on CG.4814 (15%), with trees on all other rootstocks averaging 10% or less mortality. Tree size after 5 years allowed for a preliminary partitioning of these rootstocks in to size classes from sub-dwarf to semi-standard. B.70-20-20 was semi-standard, and B.7-20-21 and B.64-194 were large semi-dwarfs. B.7-3-150, B.67-5-32, B.70-6-8, G.202N, CG.4004, and PiAu 9-90 were moderate semi-dwarfs. CG.3001, CG.4814, CG.5087, CG.5222, and PiAu 51-11 were small semi-dwarfs. G.202TC (TC = liners from tissue culture), G.935N (N = liners from stool beds), G.935TC, CG.4013, CG.4214, M.9 Pajam 2, and M.26 EMLA were large dwarfs. B.10, G.11, G.41N, G.41TC, Supp.3, and M.9 NAKBT337 were moderate dwarfs, and B.9, CG.2034, and CG.4003 were small dwarfs. B.71-7-22 was sub-dwarf. B.70-20-20, B.7-20-21, and B.64- 194were too vigorous for a high-density system, and conversely, B.71-7-22 was not vigorous enough. Among the six moderate semi-dwarf rootstocks, CG.4004 and G.202N performed best, using cumulative (2011-14) yield efficiency as the primary determinant of performance. Among the five small semi-dwarf rootstocks, CG.5087, CG.4814, and CG.3001 performed best. Of the seven rootstocks characterized as large dwarfs, G.935, CG.4214, and G.202TC resulted in the greatest cumulative yield efficiency. Of the six rootstocks in the moderate dwarf class, G.11, M.9 NAKBT337, and G.41N performed best, and CG.4003 and B.9 resulted in the greatest cumulative yield efficiency among the three small dwarf rootstocks.

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