Volume 47 Number 4 Article 4 Pages: 198-204
Year 1993 Month 10
Title: Early Performance of Four Apple Cultivars, Supported or Free Standing, on Mark Rootstock
Authors: P.K. Andrews and C.R. Rom
'Nicobel Jonagold,' Imperial Gala,' 'Early Red
One Delicious' and 'Ultragold' apple trees on
Mark rootstock were planted at Pullman, WA in
1988. Trees were either free standing or sup
ported with a 60 or 180 cm post above ground.
After 5 years, 'Jonagold' trees had the largest
trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), followed by
'Imperial Gala,' 'Early Red One' and 'Ultragold.'
The cumulative yields/tree were almost 45 kg
for 'Jonagold,' 30 kg for 'Imperial Gala' and
about 15 kg for both 'Early Red One' and
'Ultragold.' Biennial bearing was observed in
1991 for 'Jonagold' and 'Ultragold' trees. 'Imperial Gala' trees exhibited the most consistent
In the fourth and fifth years, the
mean weight of fruits produced on 'Jonagold'
and 'Early Red One' was >200 g.
mean fruit weight was 249 g for 'Early Red
One' in 1992, due to low yields and fruit numbers per tree.
The mean fruit weight of 'Imperial
Gala' averaged 165 g in the fourth and fifth
years. 'Ultragold' fruit were consistently small.
The yield efficiencies of all cultivars were <1.0
kg fruit/cm2 TCSA, due to the large TCSAs.
Crop density exceeded 9 fruit/cm2 TCSA for
'Ultragold' trees in 1990, but generally was
between 2-4 fruit/cm2 TCSA. Supporting the
trees with a post had no effect on any of the
There was more mortality
among free-standing trees than supported trees
in the first 3 years of the planting.
25£ of the 'Jonagold' trees died, mostly due to
breakage at the graft union.
Less than 5% of
each of the other cultivars died.
Half of the
'Jonagold' trees which were lost, however, were
Even though support did not improve tree growth or productivity in this experiment, it is recommended that trees on Mark
rootstock be supported and that careful crop
management of precocious scion cultivars be
observed in the early years of the planting.
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