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Fruit Varieties Journal
(Fruit Var J)

American Pomological Society

Volume 43 Number 3 Article 1 Pages: 90-95
Year 1989 Month 7
Title: 'Barcelona' Hazelnut
Authors: S.A. Mehlenbacher and A.N. Miller
'Barcelona' is the leading cultivar of the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) grown in Oregon. Members of this species are known by many names, owing to the great diversity in size and shape of the nuts, husk length, and geographic origin, and the rich folk lore associated with it. Synonyms in clude filbert, lambert nut, and Pontic nut.

The term hazel is derived from the Anglo-Saxon haesel, a hood or bonnet. Variations of the term are used through out Northern Europe. The word "fil bert" is believed to be a corruption of the English "full-bearded" (Coote, 1898), referring to the long, fringed husks which extend past and enclose the nuts. For centuries, the short-husked types were called hazelnuts and the long-husked types were called filberts. Another possible origin of the word "filbert" was pointed out by Bunyard (1920). He noted that it may not be mere coincidence that St. Philibert's day falls on August 22, coinciding with the ripening of the nuts. Hazelnut production in the Italian province of Campania has been important in the village of Avellino for centuries. The Spanish word for hazelnut is avellano. These two, and the species name adopted by Linnaeus, are believed to be derived from Abellana, the location in Asia from which the nuts were supposedly introduced to Europe. The term lambert nut is thought to be a corruption of "long-bearded" or the German equivalent Langbart. Others attribute it to the Italian Lombard family who introduced the nut to Brit ain. The term Pontic nut is used for hazelnuts from Turkey, where they are extensively grown between the Pontic mountains and the Black Sea coast. Additional synonyms and their origins are discussed by Lagerstedt (1975). In the early years of hazelnut pro duction in Oregon, growers adopted the term "filbert" to distinguish their superior product from the native wild "hazelnuts." However, in order to im prove marketing, there has been a recent shift to using hazelnut, the more universally recognized name.

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